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Historia de Louisville, Kentucky

Historia de Louisville, Kentucky


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Louisville es la sede del condado de Jefferson. Fort Knox está a 30 millas al sur. George Rogers Clark, explorador del Territorio del Noroeste, llevó a los colonos a la región de Louisville en 1778, y se estableció un asentamiento en la desembocadura de Beargrass Creek. Louisville fue un depósito de suministros del Ejército de la Unión durante la Guerra Civil. Gran Louisville es una comunidad diversa con fuertes vínculos con su historia como un importante puerto fluvial. Una de las carreras de caballos más famosas del mundo, el Derby de Kentucky, se celebra allí cada mes de mayo en Churchill Downs. La ciudad alberga, entre otras instituciones educativas, la Universidad de Louisville, la universidad municipal mixta más antigua de los Estados Unidos, y la Escuela para Ciegos de Kentucky. Los puntos de interés histórico, cultural y educativo incluyen:

  • Universidad de Louisville
  • Universidad de Belarmino
  • Universidad Spalding
  • Universidad de Sullivan
  • Colegio Comunitario de Jefferson
  • Churchill Downs
  • Ballet de Louisville
  • Ópera de Kentucky
  • Museo Louisville Slugger
  • Zoológico de Louisville
  • Museo de Arte Speed
  • Museo Patton
  • Museo Colonal Harlan Sanders
  • Casa de Thomas Edison
  • Cementerio Nacional Zachary Taylor
  • Hospital judío
  • Hospital Bautista Este
  • Hospital Norton

Louisville

Nuestros editores revisarán lo que ha enviado y determinarán si deben revisar el artículo.

Louisville, la ciudad más grande de Kentucky, EE. UU., Y la sede del condado de Jefferson, frente a las cataratas del río Ohio. Louisville es el centro de un área metropolitana que incluye el condado de Jefferson en Kentucky y los condados de Clark y Floyd en Indiana. Los puentes que atraviesan el Ohio unen la ciudad con New Albany y Jeffersonville, Indiana. Tras un referéndum aprobado en 2000, la ciudad y el condado de Jefferson se fusionaron en 2003, con lo que se duplicó con creces la población de la ciudad y se multiplicó por seis su área.

La primera visita registrada al área por parte de europeos fue el 8 de julio de 1773, cuando el capitán Thomas Bullitt llegó para inspeccionar las tierras con una comisión del gobernador de Virginia. Durante la Revolución Estadounidense, un grupo de colonos que acompañaban al oficial estadounidense George Rogers Clark se instaló (mayo de 1778) en Corn Island (desde entonces arrasada por las inundaciones) frente a Beargrass Creek, donde Clark organizó una base para la conquista del Viejo Noroeste controlado por los británicos. . La mayoría de los colonos que vinieron con él se trasladaron a tierra el invierno siguiente y establecieron Fort-on-Shore (Fort Nelson) dentro de los límites de la ciudad actual. La ciudad se organizó en 1779 y recibió el nombre de Luis XVI de Francia y se incorporó como ciudad al año siguiente.

En 1811, Louisville se había convertido en un importante lugar de comercio fronterizo y fluvial, y su desarrollo se estimuló aún más ese año cuando el capitán Nicholas Roosevelt atracó el Nueva Orleans, el primer barco de vapor exitoso que surcó las aguas de los ríos Ohio y Mississippi. La ciudad se había convertido en un importante puerto fluvial en 1820, y se produjo un mayor estímulo con la construcción (1825-1830) del canal alrededor de las cataratas de 25 pies (8 metros) de altura. La influencia comercial de Louisville se extendió por una vasta área del sur y el medio oeste. Durante la Guerra Civil estadounidense, la ciudad sirvió como cuartel general militar y un importante depósito de suministros de la Unión. Se escapó de los estragos de la guerra y se convirtió en una importante estación de paso para los esclavos que buscaban la libertad en Indiana, al otro lado del río. Una enérgica campaña para recuperar el comercio del Sur siguió a la guerra. En la década de 1880, el ferrocarril de Louisville y Nashville se extendió a Jacksonville, Florida.

La economía de la ciudad se vio impulsada durante la Primera Guerra Mundial cuando se construyó el campamento Zachary Taylor cerca y, más tarde, cuando se amplió Fort Knox (48 km [30 millas] al suroeste). Las inundaciones periódicas del Ohio requirieron un extenso trabajo de protección. Una inundación destructiva en 1937 causó daños generalizados.

Se establecieron nuevas industrias durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en particular la producción de caucho sintético. La ciudad es un productor líder de whisky bourbon y cigarrillos en condiciones de servidumbre. Además del caucho sintético, otros productos incluyen pinturas y barnices, artículos de aluminio, electrodomésticos, automóviles, cerámica y material impreso. Los servicios son cada vez más importantes, en particular la administración de la atención médica, y el Aeropuerto Internacional de Louisville es un centro nacional de tráfico de carga aérea. El turismo también es un componente importante de la economía. La American Printing House for the Blind (1858), que publica libros en Braille, se encuentra en Louisville, al igual que la sede de Hillerich & amp Bradsby Company, fabricantes de los famosos bates de béisbol Louisville Slugger (aunque la mayoría de los bates ahora se fabrican en otros lugares). .

La Universidad de Louisville fue fundada en 1798 como Seminario Jefferson. La ciudad es también la sede de dos instituciones católicas romanas: la Universidad Spalding (1814) y el Colegio Bellarmine (1950). Los seminarios teológicos Bautista del Sur (1859) y Presbiteriano de Louisville (1853) también se encuentran en la ciudad. El J.B. Speed ​​Art Museum y el Louisville Science Center son otras instituciones notables.

Como escenario del Kentucky Derby anual, que se celebra cada mes de mayo en Churchill Downs desde 1875, el nombre de la ciudad se ha convertido en sinónimo de carreras de caballos. La Feria Estatal de Kentucky, una de las ferias agrícolas más antiguas de los Estados Unidos, presenta un espectáculo anual de caballos que rivaliza de cerca con el Derby en interés. Muchos edificios históricos, incluidas las casas de George Rogers Clark y la primera residencia del inventor Thomas Edison, están abiertos al público. El camión de popa Belle de Louisville celebra su carrera anual con el Delta Queen durante el Festival Derby de Kentucky. Inc. ciudad, 1828. Pop. (2000) 256,231 Área metropolitana del condado de Louisville – Jefferson, 1,161,975 (2010) 597,337 Área metropolitana del condado de Louisville – Jefferson, 1,283,566.


ACERCA DE LOUISVILLE MEGA CAVERN: ORIGIN

La mina fue fundada por Ralph Rogers en la década de 1930.. Fue un gran visionario que vio la necesidad de carreteras en este país, especialmente en el sur. Se decía que podía mirar un sitio y decirle cuánta roca podía sacar de él. Su negocio funcionó muy bien, especialmente durante la Depresión de la década de 1930, cuando el gobierno volvió a poner a la gente a trabajar apoyando la construcción de nuevas carreteras y puentes.

La Mega Caverna de Louisville es una caverna de piedra caliza de 100 acres capaz de resistir un tornado de 260 mph y cuenta con una temperatura constante de 58 grados. La caverna debajo del Zoológico de Louisville ha permanecido prácticamente inactiva desde que se extrajo la última carga de piedra caliza hace casi 20 años para construir puentes y carreteras en el Medio Oeste.

En el mundo posterior al 11 de septiembre, las agencias gubernamentales y las empresas de alta seguridad buscan la máxima seguridad, y Underground ofrece precisamente eso. Con piedra caliza y tierra entre el techo de la caverna y el suelo por encima, la caverna podría resistir el tornado más violento o un accidente de avión.

Durante la crisis de los misiles en Cuba a principios de la década de 1960, los funcionarios estatales hicieron planes en caso de ataque nuclear para albergar a 50.000 personas en la caverna porque es un refugio antiaéreo natural. Con cuatro entradas, ubicadas juntas, el acceso se controla fácilmente mediante una serie de puntos de control de seguridad.

"Los geólogos dicen que este es el lugar más seguro de Kentucky", dijo Jim Lowry, el copropietario.


Una breve historia de Louisville

La forma en que vemos el horizonte de Louisville, Kentucky ahora ha cambiado mucho desde la perspectiva del siglo XVIII y antes. Nuestra ciudad es rica en historia, especialmente en historia francesa, desde su nombre hasta los primeros pobladores que vivieron aquí después de los nativos. Es de conocimiento común que Louisville recibió su nombre en honor al rey francés Luis XVI, pero antes de la fundación de Louisville, el área era un puesto de avanzada francés llamado La Belle. Nuestra ciudad justa surgió después de que la evolución del puerto comercial trajera gente a las Cataratas del Ohio.

Algunos de los primeros colonos de Louisville fueron inmigrantes franceses de la región del río Rin que fluye desde los Grisones en los Alpes suizos orientales hasta la costa norte de los Países Bajos. El río en sí proporcionaba un viaje conveniente, pero seguía siendo un viaje peligroso en un mundo inestable. Muchos de los colonos dispersos eran refugiados hugonotes que huían de la persecución religiosa. Las revoluciones estadounidense y francesa de 1700 y rsquos trajeron oleadas de inmigrantes del extranjero. Tanto Indiana como Kentucky se convirtieron en crisol de indigentes a nobles y clérigos.

Después de la guerra llegó la paz y Louisville se convirtió en una ciudad portuaria activa en el 1700 & rsquos. Fue durante ese tiempo un joven colono dirigió un sistema de transbordadores a través del Ohio llamado Fontaine Ferry. Su viaje amistoso tuvo tal impacto que más tarde se convirtió en el homónimo de Fontaine Ferry Park. Fue alrededor de 1782 cuando los empresarios franceses locales tomaron el ferry para encontrarse con George Rogers Clark e iniciaron el comercio que trajo a Louisville & rsquos al padre fundador a casa.

Louisville recibió una estatua en 1967 de Rey Luis XVI, que se encuentra en la esquina cerca de Louisville Metro Hall. Esta noble figura de mármol fue un regalo de la ciudad hermana de Louisville y rsquos en Francia, Montpellier. La ironía fue que la figura fue encargada por el rey y Marie Antoinette & rsquos hija sobreviviente, Marie Therese y en realidad tallada en 1829 por Achille-Joseph Valois.

Esto no es ni siquiera la punta del iceberg del río Rin en lo que respecta a la emocionante historia de nuestra ciudad y sus rsquos. Louisville atrajo a los colonos como abejas al polen en el siglo XVIII y no ha cambiado mucho en lo que respecta a eso. Es un lugar agradable para llamar hogar.

Para obtener más información sobre excelentes lugares para vivir en el área, visite Subdivisiones de Louisville.


Genealogía de Louisville (en el condado de Jefferson, KY)

NOTA: Los registros adicionales que se aplican a Louisville también se encuentran en las páginas del condado de Jefferson y Kentucky.

Registros de nacimiento de Louisville

Registros del cementerio de Louisville

Adath Jeshurun ​​Billion Graves

Anshei Sfard Billion Graves

Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU. Del cementerio de Applegate

Cementerio de la iglesia de Ballardsville Billion Graves

Cementerio de Breckinridge Billion Graves

Cementerio de la familia Brown / Lawrence Billion Graves

Cementerio Calvary Archivos Web de la Generación de EE. UU.

Calvary Cemetery Billion Graves

Cementerio de Cave Hill Billion Graves

Cementerio Confederado de Cave Hill Archivos Web de la Generación de EE. UU.

Archivos web de la Generación de EE. UU. Del cementerio Cave Run

Chenoweth Run Cemetery Billion Graves

Clark Cemetery Billion Graves

Eastview Church of Christ Billion Graves

Evergreen Cemetery Billion Graves

Fairmount Cemetery Billion Graves

Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU. Del cementerio de Galloway

Kentucky, Louisville, tarjetas de índice del cementerio, 1840-1988 Family Search

Cementerio Long Run Billion Graves

Cementerio de Louisville Billion Graves

Metro Louisville Cemetery Archivos web de la Generación de EE. UU.

Meyers Lane Cemetery Billion Graves

Muldoon Memorial Billion Graves

Muldoon Monument Company, Louisville, Kentucky: registros de ventas de KY, incluidos algunos de ALA, GA, TENN, ARK, ILL e IND, vol. 2 topos genealógicos

Parques Cementerio Mil millones de tumbas

Pennsylvania Run Cemetery Billion Graves

Phillips - Durrett - Clark Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Resthaven Memorial Cemetery Billion Graves

Cementerio de San Andrés mil millones de tumbas

Cementerio de Saint Edward Billion Graves

Cementerio de Saint Louis Billion Graves

Cementerio de San Miguel mil millones de tumbas

Cementerio de San Esteban mil millones de tumbas

Cementerio de Schardein Billion Graves

Cementerio católico de St. John Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

St. Louis Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

El cementerio del templo mil millones de tumbas

Cementerio de Worthington Billion Graves

Cementerio Nacional Zachary Taylor Billion Graves

Registros del censo de Louisville

Censo del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 1 1920 Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

Censo del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 2 Archivos web de 1920 US Gen

Censo del condado de Logan, Burdge 1860 Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson 1900 Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 1 1860 Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 1 1880 Archivos web de la generación de EE. UU.

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 2 Archivos web de 1860 US Gen

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 2 Archivos web de la generación estadounidense de 1870

Censo parcial del condado de Jefferson, Ver. 3 Archivos web de 1860 US Gen

Censo federal de los Estados Unidos, 1790-1940 Family Search

Registros eclesiásticos de Louisville

Después de treinta y cinco años, 1865-1900, una historia de la Iglesia Episcopal Metodista Trinity, Louisville, Kentucky: recuerdo de la dedicación Genealogy Gophers

Un bosquejo histórico de la iglesia de St. Paul, Louisville, Ky. Genealogy Gophers

Historia de la Segunda Iglesia Presbiteriana: de Louisville, Kentucky 1830-1930 Topos genealógicos

Kentucky, Matrimonios de la Iglesia, 1824-1995 Family Search

Directorios de la ciudad de Louisville

Imagen de Haldeman de Louisville, anunciante de directorio y empresa, para 1844-1845 Internet Archive

Louisville New Albany City Directory 1845 Archivo de Internet

El directorio de Louisville: al que se adjunta una lista de funcionarios municipales y bancarios, listas de varias sociedades y corporaciones de Louisville, y una lista de barcos de vapor, con su tonelaje, etc. en las aguas del oeste y suroeste Genealogy Gophers

El directorio de Louisville al que se anexan listas de funcionarios municipales y bancarios, lista de las diversas sociedades y corporaciones, de Louisville, 1843-44 Internet Archive

Registros judiciales de Louisville

Registros de defunción de Louisville

Índice de obituarios del periódico de Louisville 1918-1987 Biblioteca pública gratuita de Louisville

Registro de defunciones de Louisville, 1823, Jefferson Co., KY US Gen Web Archives

Historias y genealogías de Louisville

Las primeras familias de Louisville: una serie de bocetos genealógicos Genealogy Gophers

Louisville, 1861-1895, G.A.R. 29 ° Campamento: recuerdo y programa oficial, 1895 Genealogy Gophers

Historia conmemorativa de Louisville desde su primer asentamiento hasta el año 1896, vol. 1 Topos de la genealogía

Historia conmemorativa de Louisville desde su primer asentamiento hasta el año 1896, vol. 2 topos genealógicos

Registros de inmigración de Louisville

Registros catastrales de Louisville

Registros de mapas de Louisville

Mapa a vista de pájaro de Louisville, Kentucky, 1876. Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa a vista de pájaro de Louisville desde la orilla del río y la Exposición Sur, 1883. Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa índice de la ciudad de Louisville, Ky., Biblioteca del Congreso de 1879

Louisville 1850 a 1899 Vista de pájaro - 68x102.1 Mapa Mapa histórico funciona

Louisville 1850 a 1899 Vista de pájaro - 73x225 Mapa Mapa histórico funciona

Louisville 1876 Mapa con vista de pájaro Mapa histórico funciona

Plan para utilizar el mapa de energía hidráulica del río Ohio en Louisville, Ky., Biblioteca del Congreso de 1875

Mapa de seguros contra incendios de Sanborn de Louisville, condado de Jefferson, Kentucky, 1892 Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa de seguros contra incendios de Sanborn de Louisville, condado de Jefferson, Kentucky, 1892 Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa de seguros contra incendios de Sanborn de Louisville, condado de Jefferson, Kentucky, 1892 Biblioteca del Congreso

Registros de matrimonio de Louisville

Kentucky, Matrimonios de la Iglesia, 1824-1995 Family Search

Registros militares de Louisville

Registros de minorías de Louisville

Heraldo de la misión afroamericana (The), 1900-1901 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Registros varios de Louisville

Kentucky, condado de Jefferson, registros de hogares de niños de Louisville, 1866-1938 Búsqueda de familias

Periódicos y obituarios de Louisville

ABC - 11 WHAS 02/10/2009 al Current Genealogy Bank

Heraldo de la misión afroamericana (The), 1900-1901 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Bautista americano 1903-1904 Newspapers.com

American Baptist 1903-4 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Bautista americano. (Louisville, Ky.) (Desde el 10 de abril de 1903 hasta el 23 de diciembre de 1904) Chronicling America

Estandarte bautista 25/10/1838 al 14/02/1849 Banco de genealogía

Beiwagen des Louisville Omnibus 27/08/1876 al 17/09/1876 Genealogy Bank

Observador cristiano (Louisville, Ky.), Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky de 1870

Revisión comercial y precios de Louisville actuales del 15/11/1855 al 14/12/1855 Genealogy Bank

Courier-Journal 12/06/1835 al 31/12/1876 Banco de genealogía

Courier-Journal 1830-2020 Newspapers.com

Daily Kentuckian 01/01/1843 al 11/08/1843 y 03/09/1918 al 08/28/1918 Genealogy Bank

Daily Kentuckian 01/01/1843 al 11/08/1843 y 03/09/1918 al 08/28/1918 Genealogy Bank

Daily Kentuckian 01/01/1843 al 11/08/1843 y 03/09/1918 al 08/28/1918 Genealogy Bank

Diario comercial de Louisville 24/02/1872 al 24/09/1876 Genealogy Bank

Daily Louisville Democrat, 1855-1858, 1860-1862 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Anunciante público diario de Louisville 22/01/1830 al 28/12/1830 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Times diario 08/10/1852 al 07/16/1856 Genealogy Bank

Daily Louisville Times, 1855-1857 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Examiner (The), 1847-1849 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Examiner 19/06/1847 al 08/12/1849 Banco de genealogía

Examinador 1847-1849 Newspapers.com

Diario del hogar del granjero, 1869-1870, 1873-1874, 1878-1879, 1884 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Free Christian Commonwealth, 1865-1868 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Insider Louisville 27/12/2010 al 19/06/2019 Banco de genealogía

Kentucky Irish American 04/07/1898 al 17/12/1921 Genealogy Bank

Kentucky Irish American 1898-1921 Newspapers.com

Kentucky Irish American 1898-1921 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Estadounidense irlandés de Kentucky. (Louisville, Ky.) (Del 4 de julio de 1898 al 31 de diciembre de 1921) Chronicling America

Revista Kentucky Progress (1928-1936) Biblioteca pública de Lexington

Louisville Anzeiger 28/03/1923 al 31/05/1928 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Anzeiger und Sonntags-Post 01/09/1870 al 09/10/1876 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Commercial 1878-1878 Biblioteca pública del condado de Scott

Corresponsal de Louisville 11/05/1814 al 28/06/1817 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Daily Courier del 19/01/1853 al 26/10/1868 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Daily Courier 1844-1868 Newspapers.com

Louisville Daily Democrat 28/10/1844 al 18/06/1867 Genealogy Bank

Diario de Louisville 1832-1868 Newspapers.com

Louisville Daily Union Press del 19 de abril de 1865 al 28 de agosto de 1865 Genealogy Bank

Observador excéntrico de Louisville 21/04/2004 al Banco de genealogía actual

Louisville Journal Extra 05/02/1844 al 10/22/1852 Genealogy Bank

Louisville KY American Baptist 1903-1904 Historia de Fulton

Abogado católico de Louisville KY 1836-1849 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Christian Commonwealth 1865-1868 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Courier Journal 1868 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Daily Democrat 1855-1862 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Daily Journal 1860-1864 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Daily Union Press 1865 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Demócrata 1855-1862 Historia de Fulton

Boletín vespertino de Louisville KY 1855-1858 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Examiner 1847-1849 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Industrial Commercial Gazette 1865-1872 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Irish American 1900-1901 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Voz de mampostería y noticias de The Craft 1884 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Weekly Courier 1855-1867 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Weekly Democrat 1861 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Weekly Journal 1859-1863 Historia de Fulton

Louisville KY Weekly Times 1855-1856 Historia de Fulton

Índice de obituarios del periódico de Louisville 1918-1987 Biblioteca pública gratuita de Louisville

Louisville Price-Current 12/29/1838 al 04/25/1840 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Spirit South 1859 Historia de Fulton

Louisville Times 01/09/1913 al 04/09/1913 Genealogy Bank

Louisville Times 1895-1895 Condado de Johnson Kentucky

Louisville Western Presbyterian 1865-1867 Historia de Fulton

Louisville courier-journal (El), 1868, 1884, 1901, 1904-1909 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Louisville daily Democrat, 1851-1852, 1855, 1862-1868 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Mensajería diaria de Louisville, 1855, 1858-1861, 1866, 1868 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Louisville daily express, 1862, 1869 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Diario de Louisville (The), 1853-1868 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Louisville daily union press, 1865 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Gaceta industrial y comercial de Louisville, 1865-1866, 1872 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Mensajería semanal de Louisville, 1855-1856, 1859-1861, 1865-1867 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Diario semanal de Louisville, 1856-1865 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Trabajador del Valle de Ohio 1904-1904 Newspapers.com

Omnibus 01/03/1875 al 12/24/1876 Genealogy Bank

Omnibus 1867-1868, 1871, 1877, 1883 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Presbyterian herald, 1851, 1861 Programa de periódicos digitales de Kentucky

Tagliches Louisville Volksblatt 23/08/1876 al 11/10/1876 Genealogy Bank

El examinador. (Louisville, Ky.) (Desde el 19 de junio de 1847 hasta el 8 de diciembre de 1849) Chronicling America

Courier-Journal semanal 13/05/1840 al 29/07/1889 Banco de genealogía

Western Courier 16/11/1813 al 26/09/1816 Genealogy Bank

Periódicos sin conexión para Louisville

Según el Directorio de periódicos de EE. UU., Se imprimieron los siguientes periódicos, por lo que es posible que haya copias en papel o microfilm disponibles. Para obtener más información sobre cómo localizar periódicos sin conexión, consulte nuestro artículo sobre cómo localizar periódicos sin conexión.

Estandarte bautista y pionero occidental. (Louisville, Ky.) 1839-1847

Estandarte bautista. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1848-1851

Abogado católico. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1841-1849

Abogado católico. (Louisville, Ky.) 1869-1870

Abogado católico. (Louisville, Ky.) 1889-1899

Abogado católico central. (Louisville, Ky.) 1879-1889

Christian Observer [recurso electrónico]. (Louisville, Ky.) 1870-1976

Christian Observer [Microforma]. (Louisville, Ky.) 1870-1968

Christian Observer. (Louisville, Ky.) 1870-1976

Papel de la ciudad. (Louisville, Ky.) 1979-Actual

Courier-Journal. (Louisville [Ky.) 1869-1875

Courier-Journal. (Louisville [Ky.) 1869-Actualidad

Courier-Journal. (Louisville, Ky.) 1918-1919

Courier-Journal. (Louisville, Ky.) 1957-Actual

Courier-Journal. (Louisville, Ky.) 1979-Actual

Diario y enfoque diario. (Louisville, Ky.) 1832-1833

Kentuckian diario. (Louisville, Ky.) 1842-1843

Demócrata diario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) De 1840 a 1862

Anunciante público diario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1830-1834

Tiempos diarios de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1852-1857

Evening Post. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1878-1880

Evening Post. (Louisville, Ky.) 1893-1922

Tiempos de la tarde. (Louisville, Ky.) 1884-1885

Examinador. (Louisville, Ky.) 1847-1849

Enfoque de política, comercio y literatura. (Louisville, Ky.) 1826-1827

Atención. (Louisville, Ky.) 1827-1832

Comunidad cristiana libre. (Louisville, Ky.) 1865-1869

Fta. ([Louisville, Ky.) 1968-1972

Herald-Post. (Louisville, Ky.) 1925-1936

Estadounidense irlandés de Kentucky. (Louisville, Ky.) 1898-1968

Carta. (Louisville, Ky.) 1990-Actualidad

Louisville Argus. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1892-1923

Boletín de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1839-1840

Defensor católico de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1870-1879

Louisville Commercial [Microform]. (Louisville, Ky.) 1869-1902

Louisville Commercial. (Louisville, Ky.) 1869-1902

Courier-Journal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1868-1869

Louisville Daily Democrat. (Louisville, Ky.) 1843-1855

Louisville Daily Democrat. (Louisville, Ky.) 1862-1869

Diario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1830-1832

Diario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1833-1868

Libro diario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1871-1876

Prensa de la unión diaria de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1864-1865

Defensor de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1933-Actual

Corresponsal de Louisville Gazette e Indiana. ([Louisville, Ky.]) 1807-1812

Gaceta de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1825-1826

Louisville Herald y Commercial Gazette. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1832-1833

Louisville Herald-Commercial [Microform]. (Louisville, Ky.) 1902-1903

Louisville Herald-Comercial. (Louisville, Ky.) 1902-1903

Louisville Herald. (Louisville, Ky.) 1903-1925

Gaceta industrial y comercial de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1865-1873

Líder de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1917-1950

Boletín literario de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1838-1840

Louisville Morning Courier y demócrata estadounidense. (Louisville, Ky.) 1844-1846

Mensajero matutino de Louisville. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1846-1850

Correo de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1880-1893

Louisville Post. (Louisville, Ky.) 1922-1925

Anunciante público de Louisville. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1825-1826

Anunciante público de Louisville. (Louisville [Ky.]) 1828-1840

Anunciante público de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1819-1830

Anunciante público de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1834-1842

Louisville Times. (Louisville, Ky.) 1885-1987

Courier-Journal semanal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1868-1869

Mensajería semanal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1846-1868

Louisville Weekly Demócrata. (Louisville, Ky.) 1843-1855

Diario Semanal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1840-1868

Libro mayor semanal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1871-1876

Prensa Sindical Semanal de Louisville. (Louisville, Ky.) 1864-1865

Morning Post y Publicista Comercial. (Louisville, Ky.) 1822-1825

Nueva Voz. (Louisville, Ky.) 1987-1994

Ancla de Portland. ([Louisville, Ky.]) 1970-Actual

Anunciante público. (Louisville [Ky.) 1822-1825

Anunciante público. (Louisville, Ky.) 1818-1819

Libro mayor público. (Louisville, Ky.) 1845-1846

Reportero. (Louisville, Ky.) 1976-1982

Southwest Newsweek. (Louisville, Ky) 1992-Actual

Verdadero presbiteriano. (Louisville, Ky.) 1862-1864

Voice-Tribune. (Louisville, Ky.) 1994-Actual

Courier-Journal semanal. (Louisville [Ky.) 1874-1917

Mensajero occidental. (Louisville, Ky.) 1811-1821

Observador Episcopal Occidental. (Cincinnati [Ohio] y Louisville [Ky.]) 1841-1842

Grabadora occidental. (Louisville, Ky.) 1825-1953

Registros testamentarios de Louisville

Registros escolares de Louisville

Louisville, KY Collegiate High School 1930 The Transcript Anuario Anuarios antiguos

Louisville, KY St. Xavier High School Clase de anuarios antiguos de 1926

Louisville, KY St. Xavier High School Clase de anuarios antiguos de 1927

Louisville, KY St. Xavier High School Clase de anuarios antiguos de 1928

Louisville, KY St. Xavier High School Clase de anuarios antiguos de 1929

Los primeros cien años: la historia de los topos genealógicos de la escuela secundaria masculina de Louisville

Anuarios de la Universidad de Louisville, 1909-1982 Universidad de Louisville

Registros de impuestos de Louisville

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Fundación y asentamiento temprano (1778-1803)

El primer asentamiento se hizo en las cercanías de la actual Louisville en 1778 por el coronel George Rogers Clark, quien estaba llevando a cabo una campaña contra los británicos en áreas al norte del río Ohio, entonces llamado el país de Illinois. Clark organizó un grupo de 150 soldados, eventualmente conocido como el Regimiento de Illinois, después de un fuerte reclutamiento en Virginia y Pensilvania. El 12 de mayo, partieron de Redstone, hoy Brownsville, Pensilvania, llevando consigo a 80 civiles que esperaban reclamar tierras de cultivo fértiles y comenzar un nuevo asentamiento en Kentucky, y llegaron a las Cataratas de Ohio el 27 de mayo. Clark pensó que la ubicación era ideal para un puesto de asentamiento y comunicación.

El regimiento ayudó a los civiles a establecer un asentamiento en lo que llegó a llamarse Corn Island, limpiando terrenos y construyendo cabañas y un manantial. El 24 de junio, Clark tomó a sus soldados y se fue para comenzar su campaña militar. Un año después, a pedido de Clark, los colonos comenzaron a cruzar el río y establecieron el primer asentamiento permanente y en abril lo llamaban & quot; Louisville & quot, en honor al rey Luis XVI de Francia, cuyos soldados en ese momento estaban ayudando a los estadounidenses en la Revolución. Guerra. Hoy en día, George Rogers Clark es reconocido como el fundador de Louisville, y muchos lugares de interés llevan su nombre.

Durante su historia más temprana, la colonia de Louisville y las áreas circundantes sufrieron ataques de indios, y la Guerra Revolucionaria todavía se estaba librando, por lo que todos los primeros residentes vivieron dentro de fuertes, como sugirió el primer gobierno del condado de Kentucky, Virginia. El fuerte inicial, en el extremo norte de la actual calle 12, se llamaba Fort-on-Shore. En respuesta a la amenaza de los ataques británicos, particularmente la invasión de Kentucky por Bird, se construyó un fuerte más grande llamado Fort Nelson, después del gobernador de Virginia Thomas Nelson, Jr., al norte de la actual Main Street entre las calles Séptima y Octava, que cubre casi un acre. El contrato GB & # xFFE115,000 fue otorgado a Richard Chenoweth, y la construcción comenzó a fines de 1780 y se completó en marzo de 1781. El fuerte, que se cree que es capaz de resistir el fuego de cañón, fue considerado el más fuerte en el oeste después de Fort Pitt, pero debido a la disminución de la necesidad de fuertes fuertes después de la Guerra Revolucionaria, estaría en declive a finales de la década.

En 1780, la Asamblea General de Virginia y el entonces gobernador Thomas Jefferson aprobaron el estatuto de la ciudad de Louisville el 1 de mayo. El condado de Jefferson, que lleva el nombre de Thomas Jefferson, se formó en este momento como uno de los tres condados originales de Kentucky del antiguo condado de Kentucky, Virginia. . Louisville era la sede del condado.

También durante 1780, 300 familias inmigraron al área y se estableció el primer departamento de bomberos de Louisville. Willian Pope trazó el primer plano de la calle de Louisville en ese momento. Daniel Broadhead abrió la primera tienda general de Louisville en 1783. Se convirtió en el primero en mudarse de los primeros fuertes de Louisville. El primer palacio de justicia se completó en 1784, una cabaña de troncos de 16 por 20 pies. En ese momento, Louisville contenía 63 casas terminadas en tablillas, 37 parcialmente terminadas, 22 casas descubiertas y más de 100 cabañas de troncos. Shippingport, incorporado en 1785, era una parte vital de Louisville temprano, permitiendo el transporte de mercancías a través de las Cataratas del Ohio. La primera iglesia se construyó en 1790, el primer hotel en 1793 y la primera oficina de correos en 1795. Sin embargo, la ciudad no creció tan rápido como Lexington durante la década de 1780 y principios de la de 1790, debido a una variedad de razones, como la amenaza de ataques indios (que terminó en 1794 con la Batalla de Fallen Timbers), una complicada disputa sobre la propiedad de la tierra entre John Campbell y los fideicomisarios de la ciudad (resuelta en 1785), así como las políticas españolas que restringen el comercio desde el Mississippi hasta Nueva Orleans . Para 1800, la población de Louisville era de 359, frente a los 1,759 de Lexington.

Desde 1784 hasta 1792, se llevaron a cabo una serie de convenciones para discutir la separación de Kentucky de Virginia. El 1 de junio de 1792, Kentucky se convirtió en el decimoquinto estado de los Estados Unidos e Isaac Shelby fue nombrado primer gobernador.

En 1803, Meriwether Lewis y William Clark organizaron su expedición por América en las cataratas de Ohio y Louisville. La Expedición de Lewis y Clark llevaría a los exploradores a través del oeste de los Estados Unidos, inspeccionando la Compra de Luisiana y, finalmente, al Océano Pacífico.


(Arch) Diócesis de Louisville

En 1841, la ciudad sede diocesana se mudó a Louisville y en poco tiempo, muchas órdenes religiosas se mudaron a esta ciudad en crecimiento, incluidas las Hermanas de la Caridad, las Hermanas Dominicas y las Hermanas de Loretto, ya activas en Kentucky Central, junto con nuevas órdenes como las Hermanas Ursulinas, los Hermanos Javerianos y las Hermanas de la Misericordia. Después del Tercer Concilio Plenario de Baltimore en 1884, se ordenó a cada parroquia que estableciera una escuela primaria católica y esto resultó en un crecimiento histórico de las escuelas católicas, tanto en la Diócesis de Louisville como en la nación. En 1887, se estableció la primera junta escolar diocesana.

En 1892, la comunidad católica contaba con 25 escuelas parroquiales, cinco academias, tres orfanatos y un total de 7.000 estudiantes.

In 1937, Louisville was constituted a metropolitan see (an archdiocese) with both the Diocese of Covington (established in 1853) and the newly established Diocese of Owensboro as suffragans. The Holy See erected the fourth diocese in Kentucky, the Diocese of Lexington, in 1988.

Schools grew steadily throughout the twentieth century until the mid 1960s, when cultural shifts, including decreasing vocations and aging among members of religious order who for so long staffed the schools, caused economic challenges for the growing system. In the 1980s and 1990s, enrollment stabilized, but population shifts forced the closing or merger of many Catholic Schools. All the while, the rigor and professionalism of Catholic Schools advanced as schools sought to continually improve academics, strengthen Catholic Identity, partner with parents, and address needs (family life, drug and alcohol prevention, sex education) in the affective dimension of education.

Catholic Schools in the Archdiocese of Louisville continue to be highly regarded as centers of academic excellence, faith formation, and community, but economic challenges remain due to the high cost of education. To respond, the Archdiocese established the Catholic Elementary School Plan as part of its 2014 Strategic Plan. This efforts aims to 1) increase the number of students served through increased accessibility 2) increase the financial support for families with children who wish to attend a Catholic school, with an Archdiocesan Voucher Fund supported by all parishes and directed to families wishing to send children to Catholic elementary schools, and 3) develop new elementary school structure to address expanding needs within the Archdiocese.

Within the first three years of this plan, the Archdiocese has increased the number of schools by three, stabilized enrollment, and has strengthened its partnership with the Catholic Education Foundation to more than double the amount of Tuition Assistance provided to Catholic elementary school families. The Archdiocese also is working with the Catholic Education Foundation and the Catholic Conference of Kentucky to pass legislation supporting scholarship tax credits programs in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In addition, the nine Catholic high schools provide millions of dollars in Tuition Assistance for families sending children to Catholic high schools.

Today, there are 49 Catholic elementary and secondary schools serving more than 19,000 students from grades PK-12 in seven counties of the Archdiocese.


History of Louisville, Kentucky - History

Cuando KY-NDNP began in 2005, we first chose to digitize 37 newspapers that best represented the state's six unique geographic regions. The prescribed date range was a single decade (1900-1910). That interval widened with each successive two-year grant cycle until the program's final expanse was reached in 2011 (1836-1922). Those 37 titles were fully digitized for completeness as new titles were gradually introduced. In 2011, at the end of our third two-year grant cycle, over 300,000 pages from 59 Kentucky newspapers were available in Chronicling America and the Kentucky Digital Library. Each title is enhanced with a brief essay about its historical significance to the state, region, or nation, and each is fully keyword searchable.

Today, over 4 million digital newspaper pages from half the nation's states are available in Chronicling America. The site also offers a newspaper directory that provides a record of every United States newspaper from 1690 to the present that has been catalogued in OCLC's WorldCat database. Information on more than 2,000 Kentucky newspaper titles can be discovered in the directory.

In addition to our NDNP content, over 100,000 pages from 100+ Kentucky newspapers are available in the Kentucky Digital Library (KDL). The NDNP specification does not allow newspaper content produced from positive microfilm, foreign languages (save for French, Spanish, and Italian per 2010 specifications), color images, or newspapers that were not cataloged as such according to the Library of Congress cataloguing standards (CONSER). Nearly all of the additonal content in the KDL falls into one of these categories.

The crown jewel of the KDL's historic newspaper collection is without doubt the state's oldest newspaper and the first west of the Allegheny mountains the Kentucke Gazette (1787-1910). Beginning five years before statehood, the Bradford Brothers of Lexington provided frontiersmen political updates and news on the issues most pertinent to pioneer life in the western territories. Presented in full color, the fully keyword searchable collection is a goldmine for researchers and history buffs alike.

The largest assembly in the KDL collection so far comes from our Civil War era newspapers. Upon completion in 2012, the 80+ titles in the collection will produce an estimated 50,000+ pages from 1850 through 1875 reconstruction. All have been digitized from our hard copy holdings and most are presented in full color. The collection is part of ASERL's cooperative digitization project, Civil War and the American South.

Not to be outdone, however, is the state's newspaper of record Louisville's Courier-Journal (CJ). This full color digitization project began in 2009. The ongoing, multi-year project is expected to produce nearly one million pages that includes preceeding titles Louisvile Daily Journal y Louisville Daily Courier.

Kentucky's African-American and emancipationist newspapers are perhaps the rarest of the rare of the state's historic newspapers. Amoung our titles are the only known issues (4) of the Afro-American Mission Herald famed editor R.C.O. Benjamin's Lexington Standard and Cassius Clay's short-lived but highly acclaimed True American.

Kentucky has had her share of controversial newspapers of a different sort, too. The most notable was the Blue-Grass Blade. Edited "by a heathen in the interest of good morals", Charles Chilton Moore is known today as the father of Athiesm. He and The Blade not only supported the anti-religious movement but other unpopular issues of the time as well, such as temperence, vegetarianism, and women's sufferage. John Sparks' Kentucky's Most Hated Man: Charles Chilton Moore and The Bluegrass Blade (Wind Publications, 2009) highlights the unusual journey of the newspaper and the man.

In both Chronicling America and the Kentucky Digital Library can be found a host of other journalistic masterpieces, like orphaned titles Libertad y Eso labor union newspaper Ohio Valley Worker one of the longest running community interest newspapers, Louisville's Kentucky Irish American temperence newspapers Citizen y Kentucky Vindicator. These are just a few we've digitized so far each uniquely styled by editiors and publishers as interesting and varied as the communities they infomred. We're working every day to bring more like these to your fingertips.

The University of Kentucky Libraries maintains the largest and most comprehensive collection of Kentucky newspapers in the Commonwealth. Together, the University Libraries and the University's School of Journalism collected Kentucky's newspapers throughout the 20th century. By 1955, with state funding and a donation by the Kentucky Press Association, the School and the Library established a newspaper microfilming operation to comprehensively collect Kentucky newspapers and to microfilm them on an annual basis. The microfilming operation systematically microfilmed large historic backfiles held by the School of Journalism and the Library.

In 1981, the UK Libraries became one of the first five institutions to receive National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) funding to participate in the United States Newspaper Program. UK Libraries conducted the Kentucky Newspaper Project (KNP) from that time to 1991. Over the course of KNP, over 4,000 institutions were surveyed, 500 repositories were visited, and 5,000 titles were cataloged. Many institutions either donated or lent hard copy holdings to compile complete backfiles of historic newspapers. Over 1.5 million pages of newspapers were microfilmed during KNP alone.

Today, our master negative repository maintains over 30,000 reels of historic newspapers on microfilm, more than half of which were created according to the ANSI/AIIM standards and USNP guidelines.

DONATING YOUR NEWSPAPERS FOR PRESERVATION AND/OR DIGITIZATION

Despite the vast efforts of USNP and local/state support, uncatalogued newspapers are still being discovered, thanks in part to NDNP. During Phase I alone, KY-NDNP found, and digitized, five previously uncatalogued "orphan" newspapers: Ohio Valley Worker, Kentucky Vindicator, Liberty (La Center), Eso y Afro-American Mission Herald. The University of Kentucky Libraries' Digital Library Services continues to receive historic newspapers from private donors, too, such as the Carrollton Democrat, The Dime, Louisville Times Bath County Outlook, Kentucky Sentinel and many others. We encourage individuals, historical societies, libraries, or archives to reach out to us with their historic newspapers not yet filmed or cataloged, including missing content (pages or issues) for those titles already digitized. If you have historic newspapers that you'd like to preserve and share with the world, please contact NDNP Program Manager, Kopana Terry for more information.

PARTNERING WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY LIBRARIES FOR DIGITIZATION

One of our favorite practices at the University of Kentucky Libraries is partner collaboration for the preservation and digitization of historic Kentucky newspapers. Since 2005 KY-NDNP has lead the charge, first with the Congregational Library in Boston, Massachusettes for the conservation, preservation, and digitization of the only known issues of the Afro-American Mission Herald. That was followed by our partnership with the Lexington Public Library (LPL) and the Wisconsin Historical Society to digitize the complete run of the True American (1845-1846). We teamed once more with the LPL to conserve and digitize the Kentucke Gazette (1787-1910). And, finally, the University of Kentucky Libraries and the University of Louisville have been working together to digitize Kentucky's newspaper of record, Courier Journal. If you're interested in partnering with us to provide digitial access to your historic newspapers, please contact KY-NDNP Program Manager, Kopana Terry, or Associate Dean, Mary Molinaro.


ABOUT PORTLAND

Welcome to Historic Portland - a Louisville neighborhood with a vibrant history and an exciting future.

Founded in 1811 by William Lytle, Portland was once a separate little town in 1835, only to be annexed by Louisville in the 1850's. In the early days it was connected to Louisville by stage coach and the first Louisville trolley car Line.

Now Portland is Louisville’s largest neighborhood with approximately 13,000 people. Our boundaries lay along the Ohio River on the North, 10th Street on the East, and Market Street on the South. Our Western boundary zig-zags from Bank Street near the Ohio River at our Northwestern corner, along down and just to the west of the I-264 Shawnee Expressway, to Market near 32nd at our Southwestern corner.

In the 1800s, Portland experienced many waves of immigrants, first the French, then the Irish, and finally the Germans. Many Louisville Catholics today can trace their roots back to Portland. Today the neighborhood, although among the lowest income levels in Louisville, is experiencing a rebirth and a revitalization. Many young families are moving back to our city and are attracted by the historic architecture and inexpensive starter homes in the Portland Neighborhood. Louisville artists are attracted to the new Art Gallery Warehouse District bordering 15th Street -- home to Tim Faulkner Gallery, Louisville Visual Art, and the forthcoming Portland location of the University of Louisville Hite Art Institute.

Recently, new restaurants have opened up, including The Table Cafe, McQuixote Books and Coffee, and Cup of Joy Cafe. Many long time businesses serve the neighborhood, such as Shaheen's, Ace Hardware, Janes Brothers Hardware, Sandy's Florist and Bridal, and Victor Mathis Florist.

With its river connections, multi-cultural history, and immigrant spirit, Portland's close-knit community of extended families is centered around parks, churches, and locally-owned businesses.


In Geologic Time: The History And Significance Of Louisville’s Rocks

On the far side of Mitchell Hill, across the Bullitt County line, there is a small creek called Sugartree Run. It lies in the former Samuels property, nearly 300 acres held by that family for eight generations — as far back, according to one descendant, as the land grants of the 1800s. It was farmed until 1984, when Walter Samuels, a diabetic, lost his eyesight. Since then, the forest has steadily grown back.

The parcel, purchased in 2005 for $1.14 million, is now part of the Jefferson Memorial Forest, the totality of which lies in the geologic region known as The Knobs. There are no trails in the Samuels purchase, though this small creek parallels Knob Creek Road, and there are a few pullouts from which to see it.

I located the creek, initially, on my laminated foldout map of the forest. One afternoon, curious, I drove with my daughter to the creek. I figured the water was close enough to the pavement that we could get some access. We drove south, past the turn for Tom Wallace Lake and the forest’s Welcome Center. At the top of the hill, we turned at a small cemetery and a cell tower, and then we started down along Sugartree Run. The road, once we crossed the county line, was freshly paved. I watched for pullouts. I settled on a small gravel bench, a gabion wall bound tight by canvas pinned with plastic posts above the creek’s edge — a recent job, from the looks of it. I backed into the head of an old access road, not noticing at first glance the barrier gate a few yards in the woods nearly invisible in the undergrowth.

We stood on the crushed gravel at the shoulder, watching the schools of minnow. I pointed out the beds of New Albany shale, rock dating back to the Devonian, that the water had worn down to smoothed ripples of iron-colored rock. The creekbed and the banks were littered with a variety of stones. I could see, even from a distance, the conglomerates packed with crinoid fossils. We climbed down the retaining wall, leaped over the water — it was only a few inches deep at most points — and picked among the stones.

Carter Caves. Photo By Sean Patrick Hill.

Among the shards of broken glass, we found bits of chert, clastic rock, numerous limestones. I showed my daughter how wetted clumps of mudstone could be molded like clay. She sat at the creekside and played with that while I walked upstream, ducking under fallen trees still in leaf.

In the water, bricks and cinderblocks were eroding slowly. Like any other creek I’d seen across the country, this one bore the wastes that early settlers left in it. There were several large iron culverts, big enough to crawl into, and a slab of concrete on the bank, perhaps an old bridgehead for a wooden deck now long gone. At the end of the access road — I could see the parked car from here — was a ring of stone around a mess of burned limbs, aluminum cans, glass bottles. In the water, my daughter found a tiny salamander, black, no more than two inches, which disappeared under a rock. We watched a larval crane fly wriggling in the water. Bits of crayfish lay about the beds — food, no doubt, for raccoons.

Cars passed on the road, and though they were no more than 10 yards away they seemed to travel at a distance, the lives of the drivers at such a remove that they seemed to be travelers from another time. It occurs to me now, that everything I saw that afternoon — every tree, every insect, even the litter — was, in fact, just such a traveler. It was all passing through. What was most enduring in the scene before us was not the meandering stream, whose course changed by the moment, and which in time would alter more, but what lay beneath it: the bedrock. The geology of hundreds of millions of years upon which everything we know in our lives either roots down or rests upon. And in either case, impermanently.

I study the geology of the region not as a scientist, or even a student, but as an amateur. What I ask of the discipline is more than understanding, more than an additional nomenclature with which I might comprehend the character of the land. The fossiliferous rock interests me, naturally, as well as the form and texture of the various layers, but what fascinates me deeply is how the rock shifts my perspective.

In the Bernheim Research Forest, walking upstream from the mouth of Slate Run where it empties over a bed of Beechwood Limestone dating to the middle Devonian period, I moved over compressed beds of New Albany Shale, younger, dating to the upper Devonian. The hills about the stream are entirely composed of thin pages of this shale, eroding out from under tree roots as dark gray chips. Along the banks are bits of limestone and fossils of crinoids washed down from a long lost plateau, and I realize that I am walking beneath what was once an immense sea and, later, a river delta.

Where I am standing was once under water and hundreds of feet of stone, hidden. Hundreds of millions of years later, the mud, lithified, again sees the light. In such an expanse of time, I am no different from the water striders skating across the pools of water. Dwarfed to such proportions, this geology spanning millions of years puts my life into an appropriate perspective and asks me, in relation to such an enormous history, what I might do with this life in my tiny, allotted time.

In the summer of 2020, I wrote an email to Alan Goldstein, an interpretive naturalist at the Falls of the Ohio State Park. I asked him about rocks I would find in such creek beds. He readily agreed with some of my assessments — I had correctly identified the cherts and quartzes that weather out of limestone and lie in the water — and went on to describe ironstone nodules, often red on the exterior, heavy, dense. I’d seen them. He told me that what I thought was a grainy sandstone was actually siltstone, a common capstone in the Knobs.

Rock Creek. Photo By Sean Patrick Hill

Online, I found a study published by the Department of the Interior, Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology of the Glaciated Ohio River Valley. In the library, I found a more accessible book by local author Barbara Conkin, “Why Are the Highlands High?” I’d long known the basic rock of the area — sandstone, limestone, shale — but I did not know much about its age, how it interbedded, nor the periods it was formed in. I began to study rock outcrops in earnest. I took note of several outcrops that Conkin detailed — and she drew on a number of experts for her descriptions — and examined them. I began my own field work, as it were. The dominant rock in the city of Louisville is, of course, limestone, though even then this rock is far from homogenous. There are numerous beds of limestone, differing in age by millions of years.

Along Poplar Level Road, between the playing fields of Saint Xavier High School and the Norton Audubon Hospital, the roadbed dips into a hollow where a creek — so far as I know, unnamed — flows under the four-lane highway. The creek emerges from George Rogers Clark Park, meandering roughly northeast toward the South Fork of Beargrass Creek. For the most part, traffic hurries by, and one would never suspect such a stream existed this is, after all, a main arterial, Kentucky Highway 864, connecting Eastern Parkway and the Germantown neighborhood with the Watterson Expressway. The waterway is too small to register.

The road, originally a turnpike built of poplar planks not long after the Civil War, is today largely a series of apartment complexes, gas stations and chain restaurants around what was known as Mulberry Hill, property largely belonging to the Clark family, some of whom are buried in the park. Driving this stretch, in your haste, you might find little to light your attention on. One could without a doubt cynically comment on the unimaginative development or else ignore it entirely. One could regard the urban nature of the landscape — particularly the McDonald’s, the car wash, the CVS drug store — as unexceptional, mundane.

Passing by the park, however, there is a momentary break in the manmade structures as one drops into the hollow and passes the rows of trees lining the park to the west of the shoulder. Traveling it frequently, you may notice the pullouts where cars are often parked, marked for sale. You may also have noticed, directly across from the park, jutting from the grass slope beneath the hospital’s parking lot, a substantial outcrop of rocks. I have always taken notice of them. One summer, I decided to look closer.

I parked beside the tennis courts of Clark Park, in the gravel pullout, and walked back along Thurston Avenue toward Poplar Level. I crossed at the light then walked south along the road, the roar of cars filling the air, noticing details I’d otherwise missed driving a car: the weeds along the guardrails — Japanese honeysuckle, for one — and the number of birds in the bramble, robins especially. I noticed all the trash along the edge of the sidewalk. In the distance, I could see the Calvary Cemetery, the spire of Saint Agnes.

I would invite you to go there. When you come upon the rocks, they might seem at first unremarkable. But looking closer — and you would unavoidably encounter the trash strewn among the rocks, too — you would begin to discern the fossils of corals.

What you are looking at are two distinct layers of limestone. The underlying, thicker rock is what is known as Louisville Limestone, and it is overlaid with a crumbly layer of Jeffersonville Limestone. Both were formed in the Paleozoic Era, when terrestrial life was only beginning. The lower rock is, of course, the oldest of the two, dating to the Middle Silurian period. It contains many fossils and, frequently, chert. It is well older than 400 million years. The upper layer of limestone is from the Middle Devonian period, which ended over 350 million years ago. Fish began to appear during this period. In both cases, these rocks — along with regional shale and dolomite — were formed in shallow prehistoric seas long drained. All the exposed rock of Jefferson County dates to roughly between 450 and 320 million years ago. Older than the dinosaurs.

They are, as the geologist James Hutton said in the eighteenth century, “The ruins of an older world.”

Standing just about anywhere in Jefferson County, Kentucky, the rock beneath your feet is more than a mile thick. Paleozoic sedimentary rock, in the ecoregion of the Interior Low Plateau, and even more precisely, the Lexington Plain — what we generally know as the Kentucky Bluegrass. In Louisville we are, in fact, at the extreme of this physiographic region, the edge of which is the Pennyroyal Plateau, specifically the escarpment of Muldraugh Hill. Karst topography is common, meaning sinkholes, caves and streams that appear to be swallowed by the ground, only to reemerge elsewhere downstream.

Anuncio publicitario

Standing in front of my house, in the southern portion of Germantown, I am in a kind of borderland between what we know as the Highlands — where outcrops of limestone become much more pronounced, whether along creeks or in roadcuts and the remains of old quarries — and the Ohio River floodplain, a bed of glacial outwash. The age of the earth directly below me is relatively recent, of the Quaternary age, which extends from 2.5 million years ago to today. Underfoot is a lithology of silt, sand, gravel — all that was left by the glaciers that melted to the north. Downtown is undergirded by this loose earth, as well. So is Shively, West Louisville, Valley Station.

On the sidewalk before my house, I am standing at 476 feet above sea level. When I turn and look southeast along Lydia Street, a very gradual slope signifies the beginning of the Springdale Anticline which, along with the other side, the Lyndon Syncline, is a kind of ripple of the Cincinnati Arch, a massive warping of the earth atop which sits Lexington, the Inner Bluegrass, the watershed of the Kentucky River. As such, the rock formations of our county are actually tilting westward toward the Ohio River. Because of this tilt, the exposed rock at the Falls of the Ohio — riddled with fossils of rugose and horn coral, brachiopods, and trilobites — is the same formation as rocks at the top of Cochran Hill in Cherokee Park.

It is easy, traveling by car, to not sense this tilting bedrock, which trends roughly northeast to southwest, aside from a sense that one is at times traveling up or downhill. The slope is subtle for example, were you to begin at Hurstbourne Lane and travel west on Shelbyville Road, by the time you reached the Watterson Expressway, a distance of only three miles, you would have fallen nearly one hundred feet in elevation. You would notice, too, that every creek flows away from the ridge of this anticline — Wolf Pen, Goose Creek, each fork of Beargrass Creek — toward the Ohio River. On the far eastern side, all the creeks flow toward Floyd’s Fork and the Salt River drainage.

There are seeming anomalies, though they make sense given the tilt. The peaks of the Knobs, the monadnocks that make up Iroquois Park, Kenwood Hill and the Jefferson Memorial Forest, are composed of far younger rock: Mississippian limestone, the youngest of which would be close to 320 million years old, topped with siltstone and, in rare cases, sandstone. These hills are heavily eroded, steepened by the easily-weathered shale that underlies the limestone. This accounts for why one can find fossils along the ridges, the tiny rings of crinoids lying along trails. Fossils of marine life, essentially, in the sky. And the siltstone is the compacted silt of a long extinct river delta.

Knowing this, sensing this history, one understands that, standing on a ridgeline overlooking the valley of the Ohio River, and the enormous city built there, surrounded by a forest of hardwoods and wildflowers, that one is standing on a seabed lifted hundreds of feet into the air and, simultaneously, at the bottom of something akin to the Mississippi Delta long gone dry. What’s more, one understands that given another billion years of weathering, that the ridge one stands on will be brought low, erased, and that something else will take its place. That the chert atop Flint Knob will ultimately come to rest in the Gulf of Mexico.

Where we are is a kind of ark that has drifted from the equator, where the warmth of those shallow seas offered refuge to the corals, the trilobites. A sea shallow enough at points that one could have walked to Utah in water no higher than your waist. One can begin to understand, too, that the city that lies before you will inevitably become a part of the fossil record, crushed to perhaps the width of a cigarette paper.

One may ask at this point, what is the value of knowing this? Why study rock?

I am aware that the rock of Jefferson County lacks the grandeur of Yosemite’s granite, or Utah’s sandstone arches, let alone those of the Red River Gorge. Our rock is not as dramatic as the basalt flows that meet the Pacific Ocean, or the tilted marble of Death Valley, the uplifted Rocky Mountains. The beds of limestone here, interspersed with brittle clay shales, seem flat by comparison.

But I have come to find that one can look at the rocks at one’s feet in much the same way as one looks to a clear night sky far from city lights. In both cases, one can touch the infinite. A sky unmarred by city lights allows one to negotiate a distance that empties the mind. To look down and hold the fossil of a horn coral in the palm, to hold the perfect shell of a brachiopod between one’s fingertips, is to go in the same direction of time. The fossil — and the rock its shape is preserved in — is as distant from us in time as the light traveling from the stars.

Carter Caves. Photo By Sean Patrick Hill

Near the top of Holsclaw Hill, just below the entrance to the Horine Reservation, there is a ledge of Harrodsburg Limestone, of the Brodhead formation, from the Lower Mississippian period. Though Holsclaw Hill is among the highest elevations in the county, at 900 feet above sea level, you come to understand that what you are seeing — what you, in fact, can touch — is a seabed. Were you to drive east into the valley of Floyd’s Fork, climbing down into the water-carved hollows, you would encounter even older rock from the Ordovician period, the oldest in the county, yet another older seabed. Fairmont Falls slips over a lip of Brassfield Limestone capping a thick bed of Saluda Dolomite — more seabed. The cliffs of Cherokee Park, the quarry walls throughout the county, the rock shelves along Beargrass Creek where it flows behind the Oxmoor Center: all seabed. What lived in those seas left their prints embedded in the mud now turned to bedrock.

And beneath the rocks we typically see lies even older rocks — the Liberty, Waynesville, and Arnheim Formations — that extend into the Precambrian Era. Their ages extend into billions of years.

As John McPhee noted in his colossal “Annals of the Former World,” a book that brings poetry to geology, a geologist loves a good roadcut. In Louisville, there are frequent roadcuts, as well as quarries. One can easily see in our buildings and stone fences how much Louisville has made of the rock.

One such quarry sits beneath Cave Hill Cemetery, at the corner of Grinstead Drive and Cherokee Parkway. An excavation in the Louisville Limestone and, at the top, the Jeffersonville formation. Up Lexington Road, to the east, across Beargrass Creek and up Cochran Hill, more outcrops along the roadway, overgrown with English ivy. And just on the other side of the interstate is a prominent cliff, and at its top there sits a house on Cross Hill Road.

There is no sidewalk along the offramp that runs below this cliff. But I walked one summer along the edge of the road, the grass vanishing as the strip between the asphalt and the guardrail narrowed. I stepped over the guardrail and into the patch of woods at the base of the rock wall. Directly above me, on the bluff, sits the expensive house with an expansive view — one easily sees it from the interstate. But beneath it, I found a tent, a small camp tucked back in the trees.

Many of us have seen the homeless men standing at the end of this ramp, holding cardboard signs, perhaps a pack stashed beside the post of a road sign. We can notice, if we are careful, the food packaging and the bottles of water left there. Atop the cliff, as if hung in the air, the established house suggests comfort. Beneath it, the primitive camp suggests a hardscrabble existence. And in between, the colossal bedrock of history, silent and resolute. Countless seabeds stacked like pages in a novel in a language we barely understand. It frames us, our small lives, and offers us a perspective to address what is important.

I turned and walked out of the wood. Someone must own this small plot, though I don’t know. I only know I had no right to be there. I felt like an intruder.

Before I turned away, I laid my hand to the rock. It towered above me, above the tent, above the interstate. What was it I was looking for? More importantly, what had I found?

There are obvious, scientific reasons to study the rock record. One can begin to understand the processes of the earth, for one. The earth begins to seem more of a living being, growing, changing, always in movement. There is no solidity, no permanence. No peace. There are practical matters, too, the geologist considers: The drainage of the soil in relation to the bedrock indicates what might be grown on a parcel of land, what could reasonably be built upon it. What minerals industry might find there. Those, of course, are human concerns.

What I return to is the afternoon, the infinitesimal hour, of kneeling beside a creek on the eastward slope of the Knobs, kneeling in gravels worn down by millions of years of weather. I recall the recognition of shale — its name, its approximate age — as readily as I recognize my daughter, myself. I realize, and attempt to hold, what lays before us in stark contrast: that the body of rock beneath us dwarfs us. In durability, in history, it is like standing beside the Grand Canyon. We are like the salamander disappearing beneath it.

But every tree, each bit of broken glass, my daughter and I, and the homeless men sleeping beneath the columns of rock — we will all disappear. What the rock says, I think, is this: Pay attention. Act while you have the ability. Our time on earth is brief.


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